Luka Bogdanić – Komunizem in razredni boj: preobrazba Italijanske komunistične partije

Italijansko komunistično partijo (PCI) sta ustanovila Bodriga in Gramsci le eno leto in deset mesecev pred Mussolinijevim prevzemom oblasti. Po zlomu fašizma v letu 1943 je italijanski komunizem igral pomembno vlogo v italijanskem odporniškem gibanju, čeprav je bil pred tem dvajset let ilegalen. Po vojni je partija dejavno soustvarjala italijansko povojno demokratično republikansko ustavo. Pod Togliattijevim vodstvom so Gramscijeve – v zaporu razvite – misli postale glavni intelektualni in ideološki instrument partije. Tako je nastala množična partija – največja komunistična partija v Zahodni Evropi. Še več, Togliatijev moto je bil »Partijsko sekcijo za vsak zvonik«. Več kot 44 let je partija uspešno delovala v večstrankarskem demokratičnem kontekstu, natop pa je ta največja komunistična partija Zahodne Evrope v manj kot dveh letih izginila s političnega prizorišča. Začetek konca je sovpadel s padcem Berlinskega zidu. 12. novembra 1989 je Achille Occhetto, generalni sekretar partije, v Bolognini razglasil »Vse je mogoče«, kar je pomenilo tudi, da lahko partija spremeni ime. Da bi člane partije prepričali v to spremembo, sta bila sklicana dva kongresa. V nasprotju z vodjo partije se člani partije niso bili pripravljeni odpovedati svoji identiteti in zgodovini. Ob koncu 20. partijskega kongresa v februarji 1991 v Riminiju je Italijanska komunistična partija prenehala obstajati. Generalni sekretar je uveljavil svojo voljo, toda partija je izgubila več kot petstotisoč članov. Ob koncu kongresa je bila ustanovljena Leva demokratska stranka (PDS). Istočasno in na istem kraju je nastalo še eno gibanje, »Movimento per la Rifondazione Comunista«; tisti, ki se niso hoteli pridružiti PDS, so ustanovili gibanje, osnutek prihodnje »Rifondazione Comunista«. V ozadju teh dejstev se je skrivala postopna, a popolna vodstvena zavrnitev politike, utemeljene na razrednem boju. Hkrati je bilo italijansko politično prizorišče priča intenzifikaciji razrednega boja lastnikov produkcijskih sredstev. Vodstvo največje komunistične partije Zahodne Evrope je menilo, da jim bo sprememba imena odprla pot na oblast. Namesto tega je ta sprememba nakazala pot ideologiji, ki je peljala italijanski delavski razred v dobo prekarnosti.

Predavanje bo potekalo v hrvaškem jeziku.

Luka Bogdanić je doktoriral iz filozofije na Sapienzi. Vodil je seminarje na Univerzi v Firencah in na Univerzi v Zagrebu ter pisal o politiki in zgodovini za italijanske in hrvaške časopise. Trenutno je član več projektnih skupin v Italiji in sodelavec Oddelka za filozofijo Univerze v Zagrebu.

Communism and Class struggle:
The Metamorphosis of the Italian Communist Party

The Italian Communist Party (PCI) was founded by Bordiga and Gramsci only a year and ten months before Mussolini came to power. Following the crash of fascism in 1943, Italian communism played a major role in the Italian resistance movement despite being illegal for twenty years. After the war, the PCI actively contributed to the creation of an Italian post-war Democratic Republican Constitution. Under Togliatti’s leadership, Gramsci’s thoughts, which were elaborated in prison, become the party’s main intellectual and ideological instrument. The result was a mass party – the biggest Communist Party in Western Europe. In fact, Togliatti’s motto was ‘One party section for each church tower’. For more than 44 years, the PCI successfully operated in a multi-party democratic context, but it took less than two years for the largest Communist party in Western Europe to disappear from the political scene. The start of its demise coincided with the fall of the Berlin Wall. On 12 November 1989, Achille Occhetto, the PCI’s General Secretary, declared in Bolognina that ‘Everything is possible’, meaning that the party can even change its name. To convince the party members of the necessity of that change, two congresses were held. Unlike the party leader, the party members were not willing to give up their identity and history. At the end of the twentieth Party Congress held in February 1991 in Rimini, the PCI ceased to exist. The will of the General Secretary was imposed, but the party lost more than 500,000 members. At the end of the congress, the Left Democratic Party (PDS) was founded. At the same time and in the same place, another movement arose: ‘Movimento for Rifondazione Comunista’. Those who did not want to join the PDS founded this ‘Movement’, the embryo of the future Rifondazione Comunista. Behind these pure facts there was a slow but total rejection – by party leaders – of politics based on class struggle. At the same time, the Italian political arena was witnessing the intensification of class struggle by the owners of the means of production. The leaders of the biggest Communist Party in Western Europe thought that a name change would open their path to power. Instead, the name change was a breach that opened the way to an ideology that led the Italian working class into an era of precarity.

Luka Bogdanić received his PhD in Philosophy at La Sapienza. He held seminars at the University of Florence and the University of Zagreb, and has written for Italian and Croatian magazines on political and historical topics. He is currently involved on research projects in Italy and is collaborating with the Department of Philosophy at the University of Zagreb.

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